The Apache 2 ITK MPM

apache2-mpm-itk (just mpm-itk for short) is an MPM (Multi-Processing Module) for the Apache web server. mpm-itk allows you to run each of your vhost under a separate uid and gid—in short, the scripts and configuration files for one vhost no longer have to be readable for all the other vhosts.

mpm-itk is based on the traditional prefork MPM, which means it's non-threaded; in short, this means you can run non-thread-aware code (like many PHP extensions) without problems. On the other hand, you lose out to any performance benefit you'd get with threads, of course; you'd have to decide for yourself if that's worth it or not. You will also take an additional performance hit over prefork, since there's an extra fork per request.


The latest version is 2.4.7-04 for Apache 2.4.7 and newer (older 2.4.x will not work), last updated 2016-02-14. You can download the archive here; it can be built as a regular module, so you no longer have to patch Apache.

The latest version for Apache 2.2.x is 2.2.17-01, updated 2011-03-21. Note that the mpm-itk 2.2.x series is less feature-rich than 2.4.x in several ways, although it still has security support. You can download the patch series (apply in order), or monolithic diff.


You should probably use a package from your distribution if you can. Several distributions now include mpm-itk as a choice alongside the other MPMs; in alphabetical order:

If you know of any I missed, or if you have included mpm-itk in your favorite distribution, please drop me a note (see below). I'd always be happy to expand this list :-)

If you cannot use a distribution package, you should strive to use the 2.4.x series; it is much easier to install then the 2.2.x series. Simply run ./configure && make && sudo make install from the unpacked mpm-itk directory, which will build and install the module. (If apxs if not in your path, you'll need to give something like --with-apxs=/usr/local/apache2/bin/apxs to configure.) You can then write LoadModule mpm_itk_module modules/ in your httpd.conf. Remember that mpm-itk only works with non-threaded MPMs, such as the prefork MPM.


The new configuration settings over the prefork MPM are:

MaxClientsVHost can only be set inside a VirtualHost directive; all others can be set wherever you'd like in the Apache configuration, except in .htaccess.

AssignUserIDExpr and AssignGroupIDExpr (new in Apache 2.4) are quite powerful, although how to use them is perhaps nonobvious. The easiest way to use them is by combining with mod_rewrite, for instance like this:

RewriteEngine on
RewriteRule /~([a-z]+)/ - [E=ITKUID:$1]
AssignUserIDExpr %{reqenv:ITKUID}

This will cause e.g. /~sesse/foo to be run as the user “sesse” (and /~root/foo to be run as user “root”, so beware!).

Quirks and warnings

Since mpm-itk has to be able to setuid(), it runs as root (although restricted with POSIX capabilities and seccomp v2 where possible) until the request is parsed and the vhost determined. This means that any code execution hole before the request is parsed will be a potential root security hole. (The most likely place is probably in mod_ssl.) This is not likely to change in the near future, as socket passing, the most likely alternative solution, is very hard to get to work properly in a number of common use cases (e.g. SSL).

The lack of socket passing also leads to another minor quirk: If you connect to httpd, make a request and then make a request on the same connection that gets handled by a different uid, mpm-itk simply shuts down the connection. This is perfectly legal according to RFC 2616 section 8.1.4, and all major clients seem to handle it well; the web server simply simulates a timeout, and the client just opens a new connection and retries the request. However, there is a small performance hit, and thus you should avoid including content from multiple uids in the same page.

Note that mpm-itk is nowhere as tested as, say, prefork. That being said, it's being run in production at several sites in the world, both hobbyist and commercial, some as large as ~10 million hits a day.


mpm-itk is licensed under the Apache License, version 2.0, like the rest of Apache.


If mpm-itk does not suit your tastes, here are some alternatives:


mpm-itk is developed by Steinar H. Gunderson; email address is at my home page.

There is a user mailing list at mpm-itk [at]; please direct any support requests there. Visit the mailing list page to subscribe, or send a blank e-mail to mpm-itk-subscribe [at]